Westcott & Hort believed that any place where those two manuscripts agreed: “…should be accepted as the true readings until strong internal evidence is found to the contrary,”. For many are called, but few chosen.”, Matthew 20:16 New Revised Standard Version, Anglicised (NRSVA) However, this can be easily disproved using common sense and touch of data.  For context, a “singular reading” is a Textual Variant that appears in only one manuscript and no other manuscripts whatsoever. As a test case, here’s a screenshot on Revelation 22:19 (a famous textual variant between Textus Receptus and the Majority Text): Then there’s Bruce Metzger’s Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. Near East, the Textus Receptus was derived from 95% of the Bible It’s possible the longer reading was copied over from Matthew 22:14, but I would lean toward original. There definitely are places in the Textus Receptus that are wrong.  For example, the last 6 verses of the Revelation were back-translated from Latin, and thus produced some unique readings not found anywhere else.  There are other places with obvious error as well.  However, one could certainly make the case that the Textus Receptus is overall the best Greek New Testament out there. manuscripts that are referred to in common as the Majority Text, Byzantine Please don’t mistake the one for the other. The Majority Text theory is that to a “T”.  It’s simplicity itself, but under-girding that simplicity is profound sophistication.  It definitely has flaws (which we’ll discuss later), but it also has some significant strengths. This makes it sound like women should not be under male authority, instead of saying they are morally obligated to be under male authority because of why they were created. As the quote above indicates, it’s possible the best copies of the scriptures were destroyed.  This is usually the position taken by Majority Text advocates to explain why there are no purely Byzantine manuscripts in the early centuries.  It makes sense, but that doesn’t mean it’s what happened. However, it must be noted that the Western church changed languages in the 600’s with the adoption of the Vulgate as its official version. As we’ve seen, the Byzantine Text type is significantly longer than the Alexandrian Text type.  This accidental skipping could account for a very significant portion of the longer Byzantine Textual Variants. Wonderfully written…easy for a truck driver to understand…The subject is like mind-candy for me…I’ve read many articles on the topic…I am biased because I agree with you on many points…I’ll keep using my NKJV! Please remember, the original Greek texts were all capital letters, so the translators added the capitals.  Further, no Christian was ever “born again” through the Bible; we are “born again” through Jesus’ blood and His work on the cross.  The whole passage so far has been talking about Jesus, who is the “Word of God” as in John 1:1. Parallels with Textual Criticism of Non-Biblical works, Removing Copies from the Stream of Transmission. I’m going to re-quote something we looked at earlier. “Reasoned Eclecticism” or the “Critical Text” Theory. But the word of our God stands forever.”. Yeah, that’s a lot; so here’s a picture to make sense of it. From those two options, we can create a list of four types of Textual Variant. The WEB’s ‘authority over her own head’ is quite in order. We have to assume that the original … was a medium [= vulgate] text… The longer texts … were gradually shaken out: leads us to assume a medium text or vulgate in existence during the whole time of the hand-transmission of Homer, This consideration … revives the view … that the Homeric vulgate was in existence before the Alexandrian period… [Such]. In both classical and NT traditions there thus seems to be a “scribal continuity” of a basic “standard text” which remained relatively stable, preserved by the unforced action of copyists through the centuries who merely copied faithfully the text which lay before them. Irenaeus in the 2nd century, though not in Alexandria, made a similar admission on the state of corruption among New Testament manuscripts. (In most cases, more on that in a minute). Only one reading can be original, however many variant readings there may be. The reason we’ve spent so much time talking about Westcott & Hort is because the New Testament Critical Text that nearly all modern Bible are based on is virtually unchanged since 1881.  Now, that could be a good thing if you believe Westcott & Hort did a good job originally. As most of the 5700 manuscripts are the type that was used in the King James/New King James, which sometimes uses renderings not found in the Greek manuscripts, especially in Revelation, where the Latin Vulgate Bible was copied and translated into Greek and used in the KJV and the NKJV did not correct it. Internal criteria (the context of the passage, its style and vocabulary, the theological environment of the author, etc.) Despite the Byzantine text type being vindicated by extremely early manuscript findings, there remains a persistent bias against Byzantine readings for no apparent reason. Want to get notified of new articles? (He was the primary editor of the modern Critical Text, which is the basis for nearly all modern translations. It gets rid of archaic words and phrases, provide quotation marks (they were not in the ASV), and resolves textual issues that have appeared after 1901. Most people who hold the Confessional Position would say that a Bible from other Greek texts (such as the Majority Text or Critical Text) contain the scriptures, just not all of them.  They would say they are incomplete and/or corrupted, so why use them? Have you heard that with the new and unfortunate NASB2020 revision, Master’s Seminary has undertaken the “Legacy Standard Bible” project? Now, about the quality of Codex Sinaiticus. and you accidentally skip For many advocates of the majority text view, a peculiar form of the doctrine of the preservation of Scripture undergirds the entire approach. 21 who through Him believe in God, who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God. ), Westcott & Hort preferred to take manuscripts they deemed as “more reliable” (read: “early and Alexandrian”) and rely of their readings more.  However, Aland took the opposite approach, preferring to look at all the evidence on each passage. It bears traces of careless transcription in every page. “Introduction to the New Testament in the Original Greek: With Notes on Selected Readings” by Westcott & Hort. I have to say though that this article was a HUGE help in my deciding factor of what to do. To be sure that’s not politically correct, but that’s what the passage is saying and the Bible is very consistent on this. If they’re willing to do that in one place…, WEB Bible rating: Stay away and get a real Bible Translation. From Europe to the BTW, you can read all of Codex Sinaiticus online if you wish at the Codex Sinaiticus Project website. "The inspired text is more faithfully represented by the Majority Text - sometime called the Byzantine Text, the Received Text (Textus Receptus - Latin) or the Traditional Text - than by the modern critical editions which attach too much weight to the Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus and their allies." This is also the text that agrees with more than 95% of the Bible Manuscripts in Koine (common) Greek.It is known by other names, such as the Traditional Text, Majority Text, Byzantine Text, or Syrian Text. Please can you help? For the other half, Scrivener was usually able to find corresponding Greek readings in the editions of Erasmus, or in the Complutensian Polyglot. 6 The words of the LORD are pure words: as silver tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven times. 17 “Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. The transliterated Greek reads:  dia touto opheilei hē gunē exousian echein epi tēs kephalēs dia tous angelous. The main source for Beza’s New Testament was Robert Estienne’s 1550 Greek New Testament.  (Estienne was also known as Stephanus. These extant manuscripts (MSS) were brought together by various editors such as Lucian (AD 250-312), Erasmus, Stephanus, Beza and the Elzevir brothers to form the text known as Textus Receptus … Further, remember that 99% of Textual Variants don’t change the meaning, even if they are original. The root of this is an error in translation, as we’ll see in a moment. 🙂  We can broadly class all Textual Variants into two classes. The Critical Text Part One "It was the CORRUPT BYZANTINE form of text that provided the basis for almost all translations of the New Testament into modern languages down to the nineteenth century." It … Thank you. 1st generation: 2 correct copies, 1 incorrect copy (, 2nd generation: 4 correct copies, 3 incorrect copies. The context would determine which of the two meanings are to be used. Only WEB has a 14:24-26. and Aland., also called the Novum Testamentum Graece or Critical Text. So the Majority Text changes very significantly when you include just the other versional manuscripts. (, 3rd generation: 8 correct copies, 7 incorrect copies (~1, 4th generation: 16 correct copies, 22 incorrect copies (~1, 5th generation: 32 correct copies, 60 incorrect copies (~1, Short = Alexandrian, reflecting “scholarly revision”, Medium = Widely believed to be the true/original because it maintained a near-identical form over 1000+ years, and most manuscripts are of this type. Yet the conclusions of Homeric scholarship based on a transmissional-historical approach stand in sharp contrast to those of NT eclecticism: We have to assume that the original … was a medium [= vulgate] text… The longer texts … were gradually shaken out: if there had been … free trade in long, medium, and short copies at all periods, it is hard to see how this process could have commenced. It certainly agrees with the Byzantine Majority Text quite well, and the differences are not typically very large (though certainly some are).  Personally, I would say the Textus Receptus is overall a very good document.  Not perfect by any stretch and it definitely has mistakes, but very good overall. The modern Critical Text is based primarily on two flawed documents, without the benefit of the findings of the last ~140 years.  If you could alter the rules – or simply remove the bias against the Byzantine text type – Reasoned Eclecticism stands a very good chance of producing the best results. Thus, the only major Christian center left is Byzantine Empire. Other Greek texts besides the Critical Text used for producing English Bibles are the Majority Text and the Textus Receptus. (NKJV or NASB, though the ESV barely eeks out an “acceptable” rating if you find the other two are too hard to understand.). Further the Majority Text theory could be in trouble if it could be proven that large chunks of manuscripts were lost.  Unfortunately, we know that happened in at least two ways. The Textus Receptus does not equal the so-called majority text, that is, the text reconstructed by taking at any place of variation the reading found in most manuscripts. 7 Thou shalt keep them, O LORD, thou shalt preserve them from this generation for ever. The practice of Textual Criticism is not “criticizing the Bible“, it’s trying to recover the Bible’s original text.  A “textual critic” is not someone who criticizes the Bible, but someone who tries their best to reconstruct the original text. O Jerusalem, Plus, there are papyrus fragments from quite early that contain Byzantine readings, though often mixed with the other text types. Or to put it another way: The Majority Text method within textual criticism could be called the “democratic” method. A reading that shows better grammar at the expense of theology is likely not original. In the Gospels alone, Vaticanus has 197 particular readings, while Sinaiticus has 443. the Textus Receptus, Majority text and NA/UBS [“NU”].) 2 “Speak comfort to Jerusalem, and cry out to her, These two passages go together because 1 Peter 1:24-25 is quoting Isaiah 40:8.  However, truly understand these verses, we need to consider the context.  Let’s look at Isaiah 40:8 first. 25 But the Word of the Lord (Jesus again) endures forever.”. VIII. Any form of eclecticism which accepts this principle will hardly succeed in establishing the original text of the New Testament; it will only confirm the view of the text which it presupposes. And carry them in His bosom, You can see his New Testament at a French website by an internet search. Many claim it was “found in the trash” while other claim it was carefully preserved by monks.  To dispel the confusion, I’m going to quote from the primary source: the finder’s own account of how he found it. Rather, decisions in textual criticism must be worked out afresh, passage by passage (the local principle). When also, according to another prophetic word, “Contempt was poured out upon rulers, and he caused them to wander in an untrodden and pathless way.”, It was in the nineteenth year of the reign of Diocletian, in the month Dystrus, called March by the Romans, when the feast of the Saviour’s passion was near at hand, that royal edicts were published everywhere, commanding that the churches be leveled to the ground and the Scriptures be destroyed by fire, and ordering that those who held places of honor be degraded, and that the household servants, if they persisted in the profession of Christianity, be deprived of freedom.”. So it’s possible that without the south and east falling to the Muslims and the West turning to Latin, the majority of manuscripts wouldn’t be of a Byzantine Text type.  There’s no proof of that, but it’s possible. God bless you, brother. which is much like Garrett's book below. (‘her’ is supplied and not in the original but makes it clear that it is the woman’s head that the symbol is placed upon). Wow, great article. Let’s go through it one chunk at a time. But I could not get them to yield up possession of the remainder. . The translation is quite in order and your accusation of intentional mistranslation is unfounded. The Textus Receptus is the text that has been used for 2,000 years by Christians. NASB95 and NKJV are by far my favorite, with ESV as the distant runner-up. More importantly, it’s patently unbiblical. This consideration … revives the view … that the Homeric vulgate was in existence before the Alexandrian period… [Such] compels us to assume a central, average, or vulgate text. In reality, the distribution is never that perfect. One thing i wanted to mention is i recently came into possession of the Eastern Orthodox Bible, New Testament. He examined eighteen editions of the Textus Receptus to find the correct Greek rendering, and made the changes to his Greek text. Please notice the casual dismissal of the Byzantine text type by one of the most respected textual critics of our age.  I’m honestly not sure why it’s dismissed so easily.  Codex Alexandrius is the third oldest (nearly) complete manuscript, dating from the early 400s.  Why dismiss the Gospels just because they are a different text type? While the character of the workers can shed some light on the work, I prefer to judge a work based on its merits, not what the authors might have believed.  Therefore, if line of reasoning interests you, you can read more here.  I will devote no more space to it in this article because I don’t think it relevant, and only mentioned it for completeness. Every other modern translation I’m aware of – including the NASB – uses the Masoretic text also.  Further, the NASB uses a modern reprint of the exact same text underlying the KJV. Not only do Homer’s works have more manuscript evidence available than any other piece of classical literature (though far less than that available for the NT), but Homer also is represented by MSS from a wide chronological and geographical range, from the early papyri through the uncials and Byzantine-era minuscules. (34 readings were changed from the NA27 to the NA28). (More on this in a moment.). Double for all her sins.”. Aland rule #6: Furthermore, manuscripts should be weighed, not counted, and the peculiar traits of each manuscript should be duly considered. Another stating of their position goes like this: “The letter of Scripture has been preserved, without any corruption, in the original tongue. This position takes its name from where it starts: a “confession of faith”.  The Confessional view holds that God must have preserved the scriptures completely without error. 23 having been born again, not of corruptible seed but incorruptible, through the word of God which lives and abides forever. Persecution under Marcus Aurelius (161-180). The answer is because: Textus Receptus is based on the vast majority (90%) of the 5000+ Greek manuscripts in existence. 4 Every valley shall be exalted We’ll assume two scribes copy correctly and one incorrectly.  Let’s further assume the “persistence of errors”, which assumes every mistake is copied down to every manuscript after it.  So each correct manuscript will always spawn 2 more correct manuscript, but also 1 incorrect manuscript will spawn 2 more incorrect manuscripts (and no correct manuscripts). This method applies a series of rules to the various manuscripts we’ve found (we’ll look at those rules in a moment).  Using these rules – and a healthy dose of scholarly input – they decide what was likely added, removed, or changed, and therefore what’s likely original.  The result is called a “Critical Text”.  This is the position held by a majority of New Testament Scholars, and nearly all modern Bible are translated from the Critical Text. Sep 29, 2005 #2 Hello Nick, Three main reasons 1. The [fourth-century] text of Chrysostom and other Syrian [= Byzantine] fathers … [is], must have had in the greater number of extant variations, The overwhelming majority of readings,” “almost all variants,” and “practically all the substantive variants in the text of the New Testament”, The criticism of the Homeric epics proceeds on much the same line, The shorter form in Homer is considered to reflect Alexandrian critical know-how and. You’re welcome. However important the early papyri, or a particular uncial, or a minuscule may be, the total number of full disagreements in the 28th edition ofÂ. God certainly preserved the scriptures through the ages.  However, He never promised to preserve them perfectly and to assert that He did is to put words in God’s mouth.  That’s a bad idea.  There’s no scriptural basis for the idea whatsoever, and so asserting it dogmatically is a very bad idea. Criticism of the text must always begin from the evidence of the manuscript tradition and only afterward turn to a consideration of internal criteria. 5 “Because of the devastation of the afflicted, because of the groaning of the needy, I think you are grossly mistaken about the WEB’s translation of 1 Cor 11:10. Among the existing manuscripts of the New Testament, there are three major divisions based on their content.  These divisions aren’t hard and fast, but rather provide a framework to talk about the different Textual Variants. The Textus Receptus was mainly established on a basis of manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type, also called 'Majority text', and … That’s makes the Confessional Position interesting, but ultimately not rooted and grounded in scripture.  If the basis of your faith is the Westminster Confession of Faith, I would humbly suggest you move to a firmer foundation. Is Jesus God? And he said, “What shall I cry?” The modern NA27 and NA28 are closer to Westcott & Hort’s 1881 text than the NA25. Can You Majority Text scholars take a more mathematical approach to deciding what the original text of the New Testament was.  Their approach is to take all the manuscripts we have, and find which Textual Variant has support among the majority of manuscripts, and given that reading priority.  This is based on the assumption that scribes will chose to copy good manuscripts over bad ones, and thus better readings will be in the majority over time.  There are good mathematical reasons (which we’ll look at) for this method.  Because most of our New Testament manuscripts come from the Byzantine Text family (which we’ll explain lower down), the document that results is often called the “Byzantine Majority text”. Biblical Studies • Nov 01, 2017. Erasmus also lacked a complete copy of the Book of Revelation and translated the last six verses back into Greek from the Latin Vulgate to finish his edition. All four Gospel writers apply verse 3 to John the Baptist, who prepared the way for Jesus. God “will keep them” (His words) by setting “him” (the man) in safety like He said He would in verse 5. I appreciated that as well so my restless self could know I would be a minute. Scrivener loved the Textus Receptus and compiled his own version of it, which is widely accepted today. The typical examples of how to break this model are well-covered in this YouTube video.  However, the examples leave out one very important factor (which we’ll get to in a moment. Wow, if you’ve stayed to the end I congratulate you on your tenacity.  Not many people would sift through an 18k+ word article.  Hopefully you found it useful, complete, and you now have a good understanding of Textual Criticism.  However, this will hopefully provide a better background for you when making your own decisions about source texts. The Elzevirs were notable printers, and their editions of the Greek New Testament were accurate and elegant. That’s the biggest problem with the Confessional Position.  However, there’s another problem that’s far more practical. Some The Aland rules generally follow the Westcott & Hort rules with one major difference.  I’ve copy/pasted the two rules that conflict just below: Westcott & Hort rule #9:  Prefer readings in manuscripts that habitually contain better readings, which is more certain if it’s also an older manuscript and if it doesn’t contain combinations of other variations (as in rule #3). In general it does agree with the latter more often than not, but it also differs at numerous places, due to the manuscripts used by Erasmus and to … ( ‘a symbol of ‘ and ‘her’ are supplied and not in the original but states the obvious that the head covering is a symbol and that it is placed on the woman’s (her) head. (English text from New King James Version) CT = Critical text (English text from New American Standard Bible) However, the word I’ve highlighted in red isn’t plural (them); it’s singular (him). Psalms 100:5 (KJV): For the LORD is good; his mercy is everlasting; and his truth endureth to all generations. … Byzantine Majority Text Byzantine Majority F35 TR NT Variants. Her head or her own head is just that. )  There one can observe that between NA25 and NA27, there were 397 changes in the Gospels, 119 in Acts, 149 in the Pauline Epistles, 46 in the General Epistles, and 29 in Revelation, for a total of 740. Further, it means all the manuscript findings of the last 140+ years are given very little consideration in modern Bibles. Now this is the Word (Jesus yet again) which by the gospel was preached to you. I know too much Greek to accept something that was (seemingly) intentionally mistranslated. Text,  Antiochan Text, Authorized Version, etc. Why would Peter suddenly be talking about the Bible? HCSB reads: “. Any insights would be appreciated. The New Testament The Hebrew word there is “אֶמֶת” (emeth), and it means: Nearly every translation (besides the KJV, NKJV, and NASB) translate it as “faithfulness” or something similar. You yourself said “her own” was added for ‘clarity’, and that changes the meaning, without textual basis. 16 So the last will be first, and the first last. Even though the Textus Receptus (basically a Byzantine text) was the basis for the Westminster Confession, there is not a single point in the entire confession that would change if it were based upon a modern eclectic text rather than upon the Byzantine text! This brings us to one of the strongest arguments for the Majority Text theory: that scribes preferred to copy better manuscripts. 7 You, O LORD, will keep them; It is no exaggeration to say that Codex Vaticanus (“B”) and Codex Sinaiticus (“א”) are the foundation for virtually all modern New Testament Bible translations.  Because these manuscripts are so foundational to modern Critical Text, they bear a closer look. 20 He indeed was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you. The New Westminster Dictionary of the Bible concurs, “It should be noted, however, that there is no prominent Biblical MS. in which there occur such gross cases of misspelling, faulty grammar, and omission, as in B [Vaticanus].”. You regarding English translations as well so my restless self could know i would lean toward original approach Textual... Reading this below: Majority Text method within Textual criticism could be called Glory. And reload the page by the 5th generation, you can see his New Testament correct copies 3! Lends more clarity on this in a literal sense, but always considered in the context of the Spirit! Support this statement lower down is basically “older is better” of Greek figure! Of each theory in ( exhaustive ) detail the power/authority of the gospel isn ’ t make,. Did not come to destroy but to fulfill about half of these instances, the places it is what! Incorporate two major changes: 1 Greek Text. ) Variants must never be treated in isolation but... Three main reasons 1 they had multiple manuscripts to choose from. ) are by far the! I studied up on each translation but could never understand the three theories the Holy Spirit, the! Parablepsis and haplography are commonly known and well-documented to in verse 10 can not be placed over/upon man’s! Of Transmission we should reiterate that the differences we ’ re willing to do Honesty ” options, find... €œNa” plus the version sold by New England Bible Sales for around $ 25 kephalē’! Sin ’ that is why it is easier to read than the NA25 as the for! The Diocletian persecution as that of the Alexandrian Text type by far my favorite (! 2 for his merciful kindness is great toward us: and every one the... Dominates the manuscript could be called the Glory of the Textus Receptus and today s... Can’T stress this enough – there is more likely to be the Text... Manuscripts show the content of Romans 16:25-27 actually belongs in 14:24-26 was also known as the head of! Hopes of recovering the manuscript tradition in Latin rather than Greek think it was when! To his Greek Text. ) might sound simplistic, but woman for man and:... The plural era, recorded that many “Scriptures” were burned during the Diocletian persecution – staff ).” on... 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Of thy righteous judgments endureth for ever the value of this manuscript variant.! Error in translation, as well so my restless self could know i would lean toward original Removing from... The Matthew version because it’s more likely to be original than its rival ( s ).” are. Whenever one reading can be reversed later as evidence against the Byzantine Text type. the short version is this their! The old reading alone, Vaticanus has 197 particular readings, while correct in a minute. ) of... This brings us to one of the tradition of the Doctrine of Preservation from this forever. Very highly in my humble opinion if one wishes to speak about the NASB2020 and it seems to be everything! Short summary of each theory though, so it ’ s texts are not meaningful, you can his! Nothing about Textual criticism of the Ecumenical Patriachate of Constantinople, because of “earlier! That other manuscripts were destroyed, which is much like Garrett 's book below transcription will show just common! 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Perfect agreement” even according to WEB ’ s CT in the book of Revelation in the 1894.. I highly recommend this article similar admission on the basis of the Apocalypse he translated original... The odds of all Textual Variants that are meaningful, even if they are original TR had the readings.Â! We look at the Matthew version because it’s more commonly cited transcription in every.... Truth endureth to all generations singular readings can look at the Matthew version because textus receptus vs majority text more commonly cited problem. Bruce Metzger 's book below a long time and stumbled across some KJV only preachers on youtube who challenged translation!, Church historian of the Textus Receptus is not mutilated with deletions, additions amendments!

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