2020). Published 2020 April 29, Solar magnetic fields ; Solar wind ; Solar coronal loops. Moreover, the large observed transverse flows are part of a closed global circulation pattern, and within a closed system, angular momentum is conserved. It is conceivable that there could be a change in angular momentum loss to the solar wind, if the solar wind originates preferentially from a region with either enhanced or reduced angular momentum in the circulating open magnetic flux. The work of Fisk (1996) was obviously of interest to studies of the heliosphere. 2019), and extrapolations of photospheric magnetic field maps (Badman et al. Volume 894, Thousands of individual events with durations greater than several seconds are seen in the 11 days below 0.25 au, allowing for preliminary studies of their statistical properties. The Sun Journal is a newspaper published in Lewiston, Maine, United States, which covers the west of Maine. The larger switchback events have a statistically significant clustering of the orientations of their magnetic field deflections away from the quiet radially inward direction (Horbury et al. For realistic solar parameter values, our results are in broad agreement with the tachocline model of Gough and McIntyre. Already a subscriber but don't have a user name or password? The open magnetic flux moves through the corona to maintain magnetic pressure balance. Parker Solar Probe was designed, built, and is now operated by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory as part of NASA's Living with a Star (LWS) program (contract NNN06AA01C). Strips from these maps are then cross-correlated to determine the distances in latitude and longitude that the magnetic. The SWEAP Investigation is supported under the same contract. 10,813 talking about this. There is little evidence that this process occurs at all, and certainly as the open magnetic flux from the polar coronal hole is transported downward in heliographic latitude from the polar coronal hole, across a broad range of heliographic longitudes, it cannot all reconnect and be eliminated at the current sheet, nor on the other side of the Sun can open flux be generated and transported upward in heliographic latitude. Jody, a Lewiston native with more then 30 years of advertising, marketing and business development experience, started working at the Sun Journal as a part time employee taking classified ads in 1988. 2019). Read latest breaking news, updates, and headlines. Although it has long been recognized that the meridional flow is predominantly poleward at the Sun's surface and in its shallow interior, the location of the equatorward return flow and the meridional flow profile in the deeper interior remain unclear. Journal Home; Current Issue; See All Issues; Circulation Research. Lockport Carol J. Peters passed away December 27, 2020 in Buffalo General Medical Center. About Lewiston Sun Journal. This site uses cookies. 2018), the events discovered by PSP exhibit an important new set of characteristics. Home delivery customers will have access at no additional cost to their print subscription. The Lewiston Sun Journal keeps readers up to date on news and events in Maine's second-largest city. This conclusion is additionally supported by the observation that the perturbed magnetic field within each event tends to rotate in one direction in a 2D plane, and then return to the original quiet orientation afterward (Kasper et al. The observed level of global circulation is more than 25 times larger than the Weber–Davis model, which predicts flows of about 2 km s−1 at PSP distances from the Sun for an Alfvén point at 10 solar radii, implying much higher rates of angular momentum loss by the solar wind and resulting spindown of solar rotation. Under these circumstances, open magnetic flux can be eliminated only if two oppositely directed open magnetic field lines reconnect at the current sheet, inside the Alfvén point, thereby forming two U'-shaped loops, one that remains attached to the Sun, and the other that is carried outward with the solar wind, eliminating open flux from the heliosphere. The American Astronomical Society. These cross-correlation results are dominated by larger and deeper cells at longer time lags. Sun Journal. Symbols correspond to the inbound and outbound phases of encounters one (E1) and two (E2). In addition to its main office in Lewiston, the paper maintains satellite news and sales bureaus in the Maine towns of Farmington, Norway and Rumford. By continuing to use this site you agree to our use of cookies. At closest approach the transverse flow reached 50 km s−1, or 25% of the radial speed of the wind, with no sign that it was a maximum. There are many of them and they occur in all types of solar wind, such as regular slow solar wind, highly Alfvénic slow solar wind near the boundary of a coronal hole, and fast wind emerging from a midlatitude coronal hole, suggesting that the process that created them occurs in all types of solar wind and their source regions in the corona (Bale et al. The open magnetic field lines are undergoing global circulation in the overlying corona, while still being attached to the solar surface. © 2020. 2020), the spacecraft is thought to have spent the entire interval inside 0.25 au (54 solar radii), just below the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) in the southern magnetic hemisphere of the Sun (Szabo et al. Its membership of about 7,000 individuals also includes physicists, mathematicians, geologists, engineers, and others whose research and educational interests lie within the broad spectrum of subjects comprising contemporary astronomy. Join to Connect. The global circulation pattern of open flux may also have implications for the solar dynamo. Though its history dates back to 1847, the Sun … These asymmetries should contribute to the observed asymmetries in the polar fields and the timing of their reversals. If you have a user account, you will need to reset your password the next time you login. This can be compared with the observational Figure 2. Tel: +353 1 668 9099 | Fax: + 353 1 668 9872 | Email: lbuckley@newsbrands.ie not identified Sponsoring Org. Illustration of global magnetic field circulation enabled by interchange reconnection. several distinct parameter regimes. In summary, the most compelling explanation for the switchbacks in the magnetic field, and their accompanying spikes in the solar wind velocity, is that the switchbacks and spikes are the remnants of the interchange reconnection process in the lower corona proposed by Fisk & Schwadron (2001) and Fisk (2005), and illustrated in Figure 1. We construct a simple analytical magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar interior and identify, Recent analysis revealed that supergranules (convection cells seen at the Sun's surface) are advected by the zonal flows at depths equal to the widths of the cells themselves. 16: No. The implications of this confirmation of the global circulation of open magnetic flux and the importance of interchange reconnection is discussed. You do not need to reset your password if you login via Athens or an Institutional login. The award-winning Maine news organization covering Androscoggin, Oxford and Franklin counties. (The smaller cells have, The meridional circulation at high latitudes is crucial to the buildup and reversal of the Sun's polar magnetic fields. 2019; McManus et al. While naturally evolving turbulence in the expanding solar wind could also produce switchbacks (Vasquez & Hollweg 1996; Squire et al. Journal Home; Current Issue; See All Issues; Hypertension. 2020), a possibility supported by initial simulations that the switchbacks could survive intact from the lower corona to PSP (Tenerani et al. 2019). The remarkable observations from the Parker Solar Probe (PSP), which we will now discuss, not only show that the S-shaped switchbacks survive, they validate that open magnetic flux is transported by interchange reconnection, that systematic interchange reconnection is an essential process for understanding the dynamics of the solar corona and the solar magnetic field, and that the global circulation of open magnetic flux predicted by Fisk & Schwadron (2001) and Fisk (2005) exists. Kasper et al. 2019; Badman et al. : Inst. In 1995, the Ulysses spacecraft orbiting over the south pole of the Sun observed 26 day increases in the intensity of a few hundred keV electrons and 0.5 MeV protons, which gave every evidence of having originated from corotating interaction regions that lie within 30° of the solar equatorial plane (Simnett et al. Read latest breaking news, updates, and headlines. Putting all these effects together, Fisk (1996) showed that the magnetic field from the polar coronal hole moves systematically in latitude, downward on one side of the Sun and upward on the other side, thereby imparting a polar component to the heliospheric magnetic field. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. I want Lockport Union-Sun & Journal in print and available digitally everywhere I am. You need an eReader or compatible software to experience the benefits of the ePub3 file format. https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0168-100, THE SUN'S MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION AND INTERIOR MAGNETIC FIELD, https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/738/1/47, SUPERGRANULES AS PROBES OF THE SUN'S MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION, https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/760/1/84, MEASUREMENTS OF THE SUN'S HIGH-LATITUDE MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION, https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/761/1/L14, DETECTION OF EQUATORWARD MERIDIONAL FLOW AND EVIDENCE OF DOUBLE-CELL MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION INSIDE THE SUN, https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/774/2/L29. 2020). Mean transverse proton flow VpT with latitude. (2019) for the overall transverse flow VpT of protons, but as a function of the heliographic latitude of the spacecraft instead of radial distance from the Sun. With the confirmation that there is interchange reconnection on every open magnetic field line embedded in a closed field region, models for the acceleration of the slow solar wind in particular need to be revisited. Published in Lockport Union Sun Journal on December 30, 2020 Carol J. Peters. The closed global circulation flows of open flux can neither add nor subtract angular momentum, and indeed, to within our limited observations of the global flow patterns, there are both positive and negative flows. At solar minimum, open magnetic flux is transported downward and upward in heliographic latitude at the higher latitudes, and parallel to the current sheet at lower latitudes, driven by the need to maintain magnetic pressure balance in the corona. {sup 0}075 with respect to the Sun's rotation axis. After removing a systematic center-to-limb effect in the helioseismic measurements and performing inversions for flow speed, we find that the poleward meridional flow of a speed of 15 m s{sup -1} extends in depth from the photosphere to about 0.91 R{sub Sun }. Initial results from the first two encounters have been reported (Bale et al. The 1σ error bars shown are dominated by the natural variance of the wind and not the much smaller uncertainties in the measurements as described in Kasper et al. Sun Press - News, sports, business, entertainment, living and blogs covering Beachwood, Cleveland Heights, Shaker Heights and University Heights element pattern has moved, thus providing meridional flow and differential rotation velocities for each rotation of the Sun. For the parameter values used in existing numerical simulations, on the other hand, we find that meridional flows are significantly weaker and, we argue, unable to confine the interior field. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, isoflavone intake was inversely associated with CHD (pooled hazard ratio [HR] comparing the extreme quintiles: 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81–0.94]; P=0.008).Consumption of tofu, but not soy milk, was inversely associated with the risk of CHD, with … It remains attached to the solar surface. It is unphysical for an electron heat flux to flow back toward the Sun, and instead the only remaining conclusion is that the switchbacks are local folds in the magnetic field. The observed level of global circulation is more than 25 times larger than the Weber–Davis model, which predicts flows of about 2 km s −1 at PSP distances from the Sun for an Alfvén point at 10 solar radii, implying much higher rates of angular momentum loss by the solar wind and resulting spindown of solar rotation. An equatorward flow of a speed of 10 m s{sup -1} is found between 0.82 and 0.91 R{sub Sun} in the middle of the convection zone. You will only need to do this once. Several trends are immediately apparent. RIS. It is a broadsheet-format daily (seven days, mornings) with website and Facebook page. Education. A reversal of the field could be due to a traveling fold in the magnetic field in the solar wind, a small patch of open coronal magnetic field with the opposite polarity of the southern magnetic hemisphere overall, a closed magnetic loop, a disconnected U-shaped loop, or a flapping motion of the global HCS causing it to move rapidly across the spacecraft. During solar minimum conditions the heliospheric current sheet lies near the solar equatorial plane. Authors: Starr, V P; Gilman, P A Publication Date: Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1968 Research Org. The relative amplitudes of the perturbed magnetic field and velocity within each spike are consistent with them being stable, nonlinear, and large amplitude Alfvén waves (Kasper et al. The heliosphere contains a single current sheet, separating two hemispheres of open magnetic flux of opposite magnetic polarity. The observations presented in the previous section provide confirmation that there is global circulation of open magnetic flux, which is made possible by interchange reconnection between open magnetic flux and large coronal loops, as predicted by Fisk & Schwadron (2001) and Fisk (2005). Sun Journal epaper. Find out more. The transverse flow had roughly the same dependence on distance for the inbound and outbound phases of the first two encounters, even though the solar wind source was different for each phase and the speed of the wind varied by more than a factor of three from nearly 200 km s−1 to over 600 km s−1. In addition, the open flux may also have implications for the overlap interval and compared results... Physicists together for the solar equatorial plane next article > next Issue > > SIBLEY Journal to circulation... 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