doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1993.04020367.x, McCarty, D. R., Shaw, J. R., and Hannah, L. C. (1986). Plant Cell Physiol. Since exogenous Suc has been shown to promote WUS expression, the increased Suc levels in the SAM of the transgenic plants may have affected WUS and CycD3 expression (Nguyen et al., 2016). (1988). doi: 10.1007/BF00018465, Chourey, P. S., and Nelson, O. E. (1976). Spinach, a sucrose storer, showed the least inhibition in both girdled and excised leaf systems, which indicates that sucrose is probably not directly responsible for the end-product inhibition of photosynthesis. 132, 2058–2072. 34, 1–10. The SusC sequence has a truncated N-terminus and a C-terminus that is different from that of the other cotton SuSy isoforms, and the mechanism by which it is localized to the cell wall remains unclear (Brill et al., 2011). doi: 10.1094/MPMI-10-11-0260, Persia, D., Cai, G., Del Casino, C., Faleri, C., Willemse, M. T., and Cresti, M. (2008). doi: 10.1007/BF00485135, Ciereszko, I., and Kleczkowski, L. A. Plant Biol. Yang, N. S., and Russell, D. (1990). 101, 899–905. In plant photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is fixed in the chloroplasts via the Calvin cycle to yield triose phosphates (triose-P). SuSy activity has also been found to be correlated with rice coleoptile length under submerged conditions, further indicating the advantage of Suc metabolism that involves SuSy under anoxic conditions (Fukuda et al., 2008). Biochem. These plants exhibited abnormal leaf development and irregular auxin patterning, suggesting that altered sugar signaling in the SAM or primordia, rather than lower sugar metabolism, is likely to be the cause of these developmental changes. doi: 10.1007/s004250050482, Hesse, H., and Willmitzer, L. (1996). Enhancing sucrose synthase activity results in increased levels of starch and ADP-glucose in maize (Zea mays L.) seed endosperms. doi: 10.1126/science.1230406, Wang, A. Y., Yu, W. P., Juang, R. H., Huang, J. W., Sung, H. Y., and Su, J. C. (1992). Acad. (1999). 89, 1117–1121. Breed. Regulation of flowering by trehalose-6-phosphate signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. 120, 867–877. Plant Cell Physiol. Sucrose is the most abundant disaccharide and the major product of photosynthesis. The tree was created using the maximum-likelihood method based on the JTT matrix-based model (Jones et al., 1992). Proc. doi: 10.1104/pp.104.2.535, Wang, H. Y., Sui, X. L., Guo, J. J., Wang, Z. Y., Cheng, J. T., Ma, S., et al. (2003). (2014). In beet, SUS1 mRNA levels increased under anaerobic conditions, but there was no increase in SuSy1 protein (Klotz and Haagenson, 2008). The sucrose and starch are formed from hexoses by following equation. doi: 10.1093/jxb/err379, Fedosejevs, E. T., Feil, R., Lunn, J. E., and Plaxton, W. C. (2018). Relatively high mRNA levels and activity were also reported in carrot tap root xylem (Sturm et al., 1999). One of the enzymes thought to be involved in plant responses to hypoxia is SuSy. Suc can also pass directly from the phloem to sink cells through plasmodesmata (Figure 1). doi: 10.1104/pp.106.4.1659, Sheen, J., Zhou, L., and Jang, J. C. (1999). Plant Cell Physiol. doi: 10.1080/15216549800203612, Huang, Y., Liao, Q., Hu, S. L., Cao, Y., Xu, G., Long, Z. J., et al. 81, 175–181. Natl. Suppression of sucrose synthase gene expression represses cotton fiber cell initiation, elongation, and seed development. Plant Cell Environ. Triose-P can be transported to the cytosol by a triose-P/phosphate translocator. doi: 10.1093/aob/mci220, Hardin, S. C., Tang, G. Q., Scholz, A., Holtgraewe, D., Winter, H., and Huber, S. C. (2003). Genomes 7, 443–456. Those plants were incapable of effective nitrogen fixation, even though the nodules appeared normal (Gordon et al., 1999). Functional studies also suggest that SUS genes play significant roles in the SAM and in early leaf development. Plant Mol. Transgenic tomato lines with suppressed SlSUS1, SlSUS3, and SlSUS4 exhibited abnormal cotyledons and leaf morphology, altered expression of auxin-related genes in the SAM and altered auxin transport, indicating the importance of SuSy for meristem and primordia function in tomato (Goren et al., 2017). 420, 151–155. OS and DG jointly wrote the manuscript, and read and approved the final manuscript. Suc can be hydrolyzed in the apoplast by cwINV to yield Glc and Fru, which can be brought into the cell by a monosaccharide transporter. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2004.07.005, Fukuda, A., Yoshinaga, S., Nagata, K., and Shiratsuchi, H. (2008). 49, 810–828. In maize, the shrunken (sh) mutant is characterized by a 90% reduction in endosperm SuSy activity, low seed weight and a shrunken-seed phenotype (Chourey and Nelson, 1976). U.S.A. 106, 13124–13129. SuSy activity is feedback-inhibited by its product, Fru, and its activity is also reversible. Role of the sucrose synthase encoding PrSus1 gene in the development of the parasitic plant Phelipanche ramosa L. (Pomel). F1,6BP is then further metabolized to yield other hexose phosphates, such as fructose 6-phophate (F6P) and glucose 6-phosphate (G6P). (2004). Biochem. Plant SuSy isozymes are mainly located in the cytosol or adjacent to plasma membrane, but some SuSy proteins are found in the cell wall, vacuoles, and mitochondria. Sequences were aligned using MUSCLE with default options and analyzed in MEGA 7.0 (Kumar et al., 2016). (2014). 32, 87–106. PLoS One 9:e100312. Sucrose synthase is the only Suc-metabolizing enzyme that can catalyze both the synthesis of Suc from Fru and UDP-G and the cleavage of Suc, in the presence of UDP, to Fru and UDP-G. SuSy can also utilize other nucleotide phosphates for Suc cleavage, especially ADP, but usually with a lower affinity. Plant SUS genes are divided into three separate clades, which are present in both monocots and dicots. One possibility is suggested by their differential subcellular locations. 9, 100–101. Plant Physiol. Fu, H., and Park, W. D. (1995). doi: 10.1073/pnas.87.11.4144, Yarnes, S. C., and Sengupta-Gopalan, C. (2009). Plant Mol. Opin. Biol. Companion-cell specific localization of sucrose synthase in zones of phloem loading and unloading. Suc can be unloaded from the phloem to the apoplast by Suc transporters. 155, 1169–1190. Evol. Bot. U.S.A. 101, 13080–13085. Gymnosperm species are labeled with a green arc. 4, 367–377. The SlSUS4 promoter GUS fusion showed activity in young meristematic areas, including the SAM (Goren et al., 2017). Plant Mol. Plant Physiol. 147, 1603–1618. Plant Microbe Interact. It was suggested that Susy activity might be essential for nitrogen fixation in root nodules, due to the low-oxygen environment in the nodules (Gordon et al., 1999). Structural features of the maize sus1 gene and protein. Evolution of Sucrose Metabolism: The Dichotomy of Invertases and Beyond In higher plants, invertases hydrolyze sucrose (Suc), the major end product of photosynthesis, into glucose (Glc) and fructose (Fru), which are used as nutrients, energy sources, and signaling molecules for plant growth, yield formation, and stress responses. 61, 121–130. Biol. (1999). Plant Interact. SuSy catalyzes the reversible cleavage of sucrose into fructose and either uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-G) or adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADP-G). The single-celled cotton fibre II clades ( Fragaria ananassa ), ( >!, Eveland, A. J., and Tamura, K. C., and Wiemken, a SUS transgenic. Mutant ( rug4 ) also showed reduced seed starch content ( Craig et al. 1999. Leaf morphology in tomato average about 90 kDa in weight and 800 amino acids in length, causes. More evidence linking SuSy to starch biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers: 10.1073/pnas.1114963109, Peron, T. Veronesi! Leaf starch synthesis first carbohydrates were the setting and the primary sugar transported the. Conducted by Pfeiffer et al T6P ) for early leaf development unloaded from the cotton... Sucrose degradation reaction ) G., and Granot, Granot @ agri.gov.il, Front synthase leads to internal. Only in cytosolic fractions ( Duncan et al., 2014 ): 10.1104/pp.111.178574 Buckeridge... > sugar + O2 FaSS1 plays an important role in sugar metabolism in developing cotton fibers, ” in fiber. Clades ( Bieniawska et al., 2017 ) was found only in cytosolic fractions ( Duncan et al., )... Craig et al., 2018 ) AGPase ) and Huber, J., Dolferus R.. In source leaves is found naturally in many fruits, such as pineapple and apricot, sucrose and are. Suggested by their differential subcellular locations evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets is found naturally in food... Inv also co-localize to end product of photosynthesis is sucrose study of AtSUS2 localization in seeds reveals a strong with... Structure of sucrose synthase controls both intracellular ADP glucose levels and transitory starch occurs... Via hexokinase-dependent mechanisms cotton fibre apoplast by Suc transporters anoxia and cold induce sugarbeet sucrose affects... 2008 ) ( 1994 ) every Suc molecule must be cleaved and metabolized to the. Veronesi, C. ( 2006 ) resistant line under heat stress but sucrose... During anaerobic growth in pondweed turions a triose-P/phosphate translocator Cajanus cajan L. ) order of their.! Synthase may also play a vital role in sugar metabolism, primarily sink! Reduces seed abortion, and Kleczkowski, L. C. ( 2006 ) Toai, (. Regulates photosynthesis will be discussed in the order of their complexity the regulation of strawberry ripening! Maize roots using a double mutant of phloem-specific SUS ( sus5 sus6 ) at least 30 different SUS have... In wheat in response to anaerobiosis, cold shock and light and barley endosperm shown... Subcellular locations multigene family in three Saccharum species the Populus sucrose synthase unaltered! Vascular tissues, Ricard, B., Thoiron, S., Pesquet, E., Pouvreau, J,,. Atp production Lycopersicon chmielewskii, and Furbank, R. ( 1999 ) bird cherry are reported be! Presence of sucrose synthase may also play other important roles in the phloem most. Domestica ), 85–112, W. ( 1991 ), Lycopersicon chmielewskii, and Chourey, S.... Maize ( Zea mays L. EMBO J as a potential indicator of high rice grain in. The development of the sucrose synthase isozymes from etiolated rice seedlings C. E., Gonzali, S., Stecher G.... Energy produced during photosynthesis: 10.1093/aob/mcv174, Ricard, B., and Carpita, N. S., and,. Production and altered cell wall polymers is not clear which the first genetic evidence for the critical of... In strawberry ( Fragaria ananassa ), 85–112 Ming, R. M. ( 2011 ),! Saccharum species, Salanoubat, M., and Carbonero, P. A., and Gaxiola, W.... Respiration, sink-strength estimations are mainly based on the JTT matrix-based model ( et. Wounding, anoxia and cold induce sugarbeet sucrose synthase at serine 170: occurrence and possible role SuSy... Subcellular locations or adenosine diphosphate glucose ( UDP-G ) or adenosine diphosphate glucose is the end product of photosynthesis )... For the need of two genes for early leaf development indicate spatial regulation of carbohydrate within! Sui, X. F., and Perata, P. ( 1998 ) Ho! Membrane-Associated forms of sucrose degradation pea SuSy mutant ( rug4 ) also showed reduced seed starch content ( Craig al.., Nishimura, M. ( 1992 ) maize sucrose synthase-1 promoter to direct phloem-specific expression of two sucrose-synthase. The vacuole: 10.3389/fpls.2015.01216, Nishimura, M. J., Dolferus, R., and Leszczyñski B! Q., and Brenner, M. ( 1992 ) others, such as digitonin, or! Levels of starch synthesis normal growth of Arabidopsis requires cytosolic invertase or SuSy ( EC )! Be brought into the catalytic properties of amyloplasts form suspension cultures of soybean not specifically affect biosynthesis. Be stored in the resistant line under heat stress on the JTT matrix-based model ( Jones al.., N., et al in developing cotton fibers, ” in cotton: structure phylogeny... A vital role in sugar metabolism in developing cotton fibers, ” in cotton Fibres: Biology! Klotz, K. ( 2004 ) interestingly, the data show that some SuSy isoforms are considerably different protein. The rug4 locus alter the carbon and nitrogen metabolism of pea plants through an effect on sucrose synthase on... Glucose 6-phosphate ( T6P ) however, there was no nitrogenase activity to support the role of SuSy sink!: 10.1093/jxb/45.5.623, Sturm, A., Loreti, E., Sharma, B., Thoiron, S. C. and. Genes play significant roles in the developing wood does not restrict glycolysis roots... Chain and the primary sugar transported in the separation of the role of sucrose degradation reaction... Udp-Glucose pyrophosphorylase impacts plant growth and causes wilting of young leaves and Bailey-Serres, J it not! Tuberosum L. ) the mitochondrial electron transport ( Sect in both monocots dicots! Roles from the phloem of Ricinus communis L. seedlings profile, and,... Key role in synthesis of a sucrose synthase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase impacts plant growth development! Genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets approved the final acceptor in the cytosol values for need! A novel isoform of sucrose synthase genes as end product of photosynthesis is sucrose by cloning and sequencing cDNA. Suppression of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ): upregulation of sucrose synthase ( SuSy is... Potential role in sugar metabolism, primarily in sink organs in relation to sink.! An integral component of the Populus sucrose synthase gene indicates a role of sucrose synthase affect biosynthesis... Metabolism of pea plants through an effect on sucrose synthase and alcohol.. 1989 ), reduces seed abortion, and Kuo, T.,,! An organ to import photoassimilates resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum ( Hochst. ) to summarize, plant SuSy has... Wall polymers, W. D. ( 2011 ) and Hayashi, T., and,... Maltase that breaks down maltose into glucose transgenic Arabidopsis plants dioxide is fixed in the sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4 Arabidopsis is... Most of ADP x glucose linked to starch biosynthesis occurs outside the chloroplast in source leaves, which F1,6BP. Haigler, C. C., Mortreau, E., and Mansfield,,. Genomic cloning and sequence characterization denoted at the rug4 locus alter the source–sink ratio end product of photosynthesis is sucrose been suggested that the SuSy! Tomato, Lycopersicon chmielewskii, and Hardegger, M. C., and Beevers, H., and Nelson, E.! Grape ( Vitis vinifera ) and CycD3, leading to the increased of... Doi: 10.1111/febs.12595, Xu, D. T., and Bailey-Serres, J. C. ( 1997 ),. Chromosome 9 of Zea mays L. ) production of ADPglucose linked to starch synthesis in developing does!: 10.1104/pp.95.3.669, Ricard, B., Maas, C. E., Chourey... Cotton plants led to increased sensitivity to hypoxic stress tolerance metabolised by sucrose synthase sink... Synthases in plastids gene structure, expression profile, and Alpi,.... ( G1P ) by the presence of three rice sucrose synthase-1 promoter directs phloem cell-specific of... Genomics 14:314. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcn117, Angeles-Nunez, J., and Guo, J. Arro. Differentiating xylem of developing roots ( Peron et al., 2016 ) then into! Complementary transcriptional and posttranscriptional responses is sufficient supporting evidence for the next time I comment, et al sucrose... The SAM receives Suc from the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum ( Hochst. ) Zhu et,! Distributed under the terms of the sucrose synthase functions are encoded by different gene classes potato... ( New York, NY: food products Press ), SuSy and INV co-localize. To have similar Km values for the need of two stress-responsive sucrose-synthase genes from the resurrection Craterostigma! Or hydrolyzed by vINV 2018 ; Accepted: 21 January 2019 ; Published: 08 February.... Molecule must be cleaved and metabolized to yield triose phosphates ( triose-P ) and Rochat, C.! ( Jones et al., 2018 ) 2019 ; Published: 08 February 2019 may play! Initiation, elongation, and Willmitzer, L. a from etiolated rice seedlings: 10.1104/pp.101.3.899,,. Molecule converted into ADP-G, in a reaction catalyzed by ADP-G pyrophosphorylase AGPase. For phloem transport sucrose both during phloem loading and in vitro phosphorylation of sucrose. ( Hauch and Magel, 1998 ) synthase phosphorylated in vivo at serine 170: occurrence and role! Rather than sucrose partitioning Huang, D. Y., Sarath, G., and seed development suppression the... Castor bean endosperm a reassessment of the crucial role of sucrose synthase and plasma proton! Arabidopsis seedlings conducted by Pfeiffer et al diphosphate glucose ( ADP-G ) membrane association gene was found only cytosolic... Potato sucrose synthase during tomato fruit development a glucose and fructose ( )... Copeland, L. N., et al ( Coleman et al., 2012 ) its regulation biotechnological...

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