In August 1519 CE the Spanish leader Hernán Cortés marched on Tenochtitlan. However, if anything, this may well have further encouraged the Spanish to plunder this new land for all it was worth. 08 Jan 2021. https://www.ancient.eu/Montezuma/. Moctezuma in particular is depicted unfavorably as a weak-willed, superstitious, and indulgent ruler. Through warfare, Moctezuma expanded the territory as far south as Xoconosco in Chiapas and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and incorporated the Zapotec and Yopi people into the empire. "Montezuma." When Hernán Cortés arrived in Mexico in 1519, Moctezuma thought he was the god Quetzalcoatl, … The town was renamed Moctezuma in 1828, while before the name had been San Miguel Arcángel de Oposura, and later “Oposura”. Montezuma, or more correctly, Motecuhzoma II Xocoyotzin (aka Moctezuma) or ‘Angry Like A Lord’ was the last fully independent ruler of the Aztec empire before the civilization’s collapse at the hands of the Spanish in the early 16th century CE. During this time, Moctezuma served as a general under his uncle. The accompanying map is the first European image in print of Tenochtitlán (Mexico City) and the Gulf Coast of Mexico. L 1516–1521. Almost constantly at war, the Aztecs had a large, expertly run army. How might this influence the content of Document A? Get Started. [30], Though the exact number of his children is unknown and the names of most of them have been lost to history, according to a Spanish chronicler, by the time he was taken captive, Moctezuma had fathered 100 children and fifty of his wives and concubines were then in some stage of pregnancy, though this estimate may have been exaggerated. License. Miguel Leon Portilla, a Mexican anthropologist, gathered accounts by the Aztecs, some of which were written shortly after the conquest. The Aztecs didn't call him Montezuma. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. He studied at the University of Salamanca, took part in Spain’s conquest, in 1506, of Hispaniola and Cuba, and rose to become a municipal official in Cuba. Beginning Research Activities Student activities The new tlatoani was also commemorated in a specially commissioned stone (now known as the Coronation Stone of Motecuhzoma II) which was covered in carvings depicting the five eras of Aztec mythology, the year sign 11-reed (1503 CE) and the day ‘one alligator’ (4th of June). Example: [c. 1920] The "c." is an abbreviation of circa ("about" in Latin). By the Princess Acatlan were left two daughters, baptized as Maria and Marina (also known as Leonor); the latter alone left offspring, from whom descends the Sotelo-Montezuma family. A note about translations There are many authoritative translations in other languages available in our collection. According to the Spanish sources Motecuhzoma allowed them entry to the city. Tribute could take the form of traditional precious materials such as gold and jade, exotic feathers and even animals such as eagles and jaguars. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Moctezuma continued to govern his empire and even undertook conquests of new territory during the Spaniards' stay at Tenochtitlán. You can place an order for Moctezuma's food from anywhere, and have it delivered to a qualifying location, or pick it up yourself. [2] The Aztec chronicles called him Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin, while the first was called Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina or Huehuemotecuhzoma ("Old Moctezuma"). Get Started. It has been noted that it does seem strange that such a powerful ruler as Motecuhzoma should cut such a passive figure in the record of events brought down to us. by wikipedia user: El Comandante (CC BY-SA). Even before the Spanish arrived, all was not quite well with the Aztecs for their empire was based not on military might but existed as a loose binding of subject states run by puppet rulers who extracted the tributes mentioned above and imposed the worship of the Aztec deity Huitzilopochtli. Four leaders of the Aztec army met with Moctezuma to talk, urging their countrymen to cease their constant firing upon the stronghold for a time. Thomas, Hugh, Conquest: Montezuma, Cortés, and the Fall of Old Mexico. "Montezuma." In his Historia, Bernal Díaz del Castillo states that on 1 July 1520, the Spanish forced Moctezuma to appear on the balcony of his palace, appealing to his countrymen to retreat. The Spanish claimed Montezuma died at the hands of his own … The name of Hernán Cortés (1485–1547) and the controversy surrounding him are linked to the conquest of Mexico, which was the most important event of his life. Primary sources needs to be interpreted in order to be correctly understood - some sources are more reliable than others, some have one kind of bias others have the opposite good scholars have studied the sources and written about how to best understand them. A nephew of Moctezuma II was Diego de Alvarado Huanitzin. Document A. But they were also masters of the more peaceful arts, and were highly skilled in architecture, art, engineering, mathematics, and astronomy. In his absence the remaining Spanish unwisely disrupted a religious ceremony involving human sacrifice and fighting broke out. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. From 1502 to 1519, Montezuma had proven himself to be an able leader in war, politics, religion, and diplomacy. [29] In any case it is within the realm of possibility that the description of Moctezuma in post-conquest sources was colored by his role as a monumental closing figure of Aztec history. a comet, the burning of a temple, a crying ghostly woman, and others. Motecuhzoma commanded, then, an empire which stretched from the northern limits of Mexico to today’s Guatemala. Cortés resembled the god’s description from the legend. In 1502 Moctezuma became the ninth emperor of the Aztec empire of Mexico. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch ® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. During his reign, the Aztec Empire reached its greatest size. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. These were purportedly interpreted as signs of a possible disaster, e.g. Primary source documents are artifacts created by individuals during a particular period in history. Cortés later melted these down for their monetary value. Source #2 Montezuma Meets Cortés In 1519 Hernan Cortés sailed from Cuba, landed in Mexico and made his way to the Aztec capital. Resource available to authorized IU Bloomington users (on or off campus) OneSearch@IU. Page numbers, and therefore, links, will … And they were all dressed alike except that Moctezuma wore sandals whereas the others went barefoot; and they held his arm on either side. HOME - FINDING - EVALUATING - USING Primary sources are the building blocks of historical research and should provide the foundation of your argument and interpretation, whereas secondary sources should inform and supplement the primary sources. Under Moctezuma's rule, the Aztecs reached their zenith. [28] These legends are likely a part of the post-conquest rationalization by the Aztecs of their defeat, and serve to show Moctezuma as indecisive, vain, and superstitious, and ultimately the cause of the fall of the Aztec Empire. Inca Creation Myth, written c 1556 [At Internet Archive, from CCNY] ; The Popul-Vuh [At Sacred Texts]; The Mayan Creation myth. Home Projects Political Cartoon Primary Sources … He had a guard of two hundred chieftains lodged in rooms beside his own, only some of whom were permitted to speak to him. View Homework Help - Primary Source Assignment 2.docx from HISTORY 2010 at Auburn University. Limited is a non-profit organization registered in the Aztec ruler also appears on the head by rock! What makes Archer such a great horse CC BY-SA ) he appears with a sun-disk opposite Huitzilopochtli you might that. Over his ears, and diplomacy interested in the arts, astrology and philosophy of! 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